Revolution 9 - The Beatles

Rola: Revolution 9
Traducción: Revolución 9
En México: Revolución número 9
Intérprete: The Beatles
Compositor: John Lennon, Paul McCartney
Disco: The Beatles (White Album)
Productor: George Martin


Revolution 9" is a recorded composition that appeared on The Beatles' 1968 self-titled LP release (popularly known as "The White Album"). The sound collage, credited to Lennon/McCartney, was created primarily by John Lennon with assistance from George Harrison and Yoko Ono. Lennon said he was trying to paint a picture of a revolution using sound. The composition was influenced by the avant-garde style of Ono as well as the musique concrète works of composers such as Edgard Varese and Karlheinz Stockhausen.

The recording began as an extended ending to the album version of "Revolution". Lennon then combined the unused coda with numerous overdubbed vocals, speech, sound effects, and short tape loops of speech and musical performances, some of which were reversed. These were further manipulated with echo, distortion, stereo panning, and fading. The loop of "number nine" featured in the recording fueled rumours about Paul McCartney's death after it was reported that it sounded like "turn me on, dead man" when played backwards.

McCartney argued against including the track on The Beatles, and it was generally poorly received by both fans and critics. At over eight minutes, it is the longest track that the Beatles officially released.

"Revolution 9" was not the first venture by The Beatles into experimental recordings. In January 1967, McCartney led the group in recording an unreleased piece called "Carnival of Light" during a session for "Penny Lane". McCartney said the work was inspired by composers Stockhausen and John Cage. Stockhausen was also a favourite of Lennon, and was one of the people included on the Sgt. Pepper album cover. Music critic Ian McDonald wrote that "Revolution 9" may have been influenced by Stockhausen's Hymnen in particular.

Another influence on Lennon was his relationship with Ono. Lennon and Ono had recently recorded their own avant-garde album, Unfinished Music No.1: Two Virgins. Lennon said: "Once I heard her stuff—not just the screeching and howling but her sort of word pieces and talking and breathing and all this strange stuff ... I got intrigued, so I wanted to do one." Ono attended the recording sessions and helped Lennon select which tape loops to use.[4]
"Revolution 9" originated on 30 May 1968 during the first recording session for Lennon's composition "Revolution". Take 20 lasted more than ten minutes and was given additional overdubs over the next two sessions. Mark Lewisohn described the last six minutes as "pure chaos ... with discordant instrumental jamming, feedback, John repeatedly screaming 'alright' and then, simply, repeatedly screaming ... with Yoko talking and saying such off-the-wall phrases as 'you become naked', and with the overlaying of miscellaneous, home-made sound effects tapes."

Lennon soon decided to make the first part of the recording into a conventional Beatles' song, "Revolution 1", while using the last six minutes as the basis for a separate track, "Revolution 9". He began preparing additional sound effects and tape loops: some newly recorded in the studio, at home and from the studio archives. The work culminated on 20 June, with Lennon performing a live mix from tape loops running on machines in all three studios at Abbey Road. Additional prose was overdubbed by Lennon and Harrison.

More overdubs were added on 21 June followed by final mixing in stereo. The stereo master was completed on 25 June when it was shortened by 53 seconds. Although other songs on the album were separately remixed for the mono version, the complexity of "Revolution 9" necessitated making the mono mix a direct reduction of the final stereo master. McCartney had been out of the country when "Revolution 9" was assembled and mixed; he was unimpressed when he first heard the finished track, and later tried to persuade Lennon to drop his insistence that it be included on the album.

The piece begins with a slow piano theme in the key of B minor and a male voice repeating the words "number nine", quickly panning across the stereo channels. The unidentified voice was found on an examination tape in the studio archives. Lennon recalled: "I just liked the way he said 'number nine' so I made a loop ... it was like a joke, bringing number nine in it all the time ..." Both the piano theme and the "number nine" loop recur many times during the piece, serving as a motif.

Much of the track consists of tape loops that are faded in and out, several of which are sampled from performances of classical music. Works that have been specifically identified include the Vaughan Williams motet O Clap Your Hands, the final chord from Sibelius' Symphony No. 7, and the reversed finale of Schumann's Symphonic Studies. Other loops include brief portions of Beethoven's Choral Fantasy, "The Streets of Cairo", violins from "A Day in the Life", and George Martin saying "Geoff, put the red light on". There are also loops of unidentified operatic performances, backwards mellotron, violins and sound effects, an oboe/horn duet, a reversed electric guitar in the key of E major, and a reversed string quartet in the key of E-flat major.

Portions of the unused coda of "Revolution 1" can be heard briefly several times during the track, particularly Lennon's screams of "right" and "alright", with a longer portion near the end featuring Ono's discourse about becoming naked. Segments of random prose read by Lennon and Harrison are heard prominently throughout, along with numerous sound effects such as laughter, crowd noise, breaking glass, car horns, and gunfire. Some of the sounds were taken from an Elektra Records album of stock sound effects. The piece ends with a recording of American football chants ("Hold that line! Block that kick!"). In all, the final mix includes at least 45 different sound sources.

During compilation and sequencing of the master tape for the album The Beatles, two unrelated segments were included between the previous song ("Cry Baby Cry") and "Revolution 9".[14] The first was a fragment of a song based on the line "Can you take me back", an improvisation sung by McCartney that was recorded between takes of "I Will". The second was a bit of conversation from the studio control room where Alistair Taylor asked George Martin for forgiveness for not bringing him a bottle of claret.[14] "Revolution 9" was released on 22 November 1968 as the fifth track on the fourth side of the album The Beatles, four tracks after "Revolution 1". With no gaps in the sequence from "Cry Baby Cry" to "Revolution 9", the point of track division has varied among different re-issues of the album. Some versions place the conversation at the end of "Cry Baby Cry", resulting in a length of 8:13 for "Revolution 9", while others start "Revolution 9" with the conversation, for a track length of 8:22.

The unusual nature of "Revolution 9" engendered a wide range of opinions. Lewisohn summarized the public reaction upon its release: "... most listeners loathing it outright, the dedicated fans trying to understand it." Music critics Robert Christgau and John Piccarella called it "an anti-masterpiece" and noted that, in effect, "for eight minutes of an album officially titled The Beatles, there were no Beatles." Jann Wenner was more complimentary, writing that "Revolution 9" was "beautifully organized" and had more political impact than "Revolution 1". Ian MacDonald remarked that "Revolution 9" evoked the era's revolutionary disruptions and their repercussions, and thus was culturally "one of the most significant acts The Beatles ever perpetrated."

Among more recent reviews, The New Rolling Stone Album Guide said it was "justly maligned", but "more fun than 'Honey Pie' or 'Yer Blues'." Pitchfork reviewer Mark Richardson observed that "the biggest pop band in the world exposed millions of fans to a really great and certainly frightening piece of avant-garde art."

Lennon described "Revolution 9" as "an unconscious picture of what I actually think will happen when it happens, just like a drawing of revolution." He said he was "painting in sound a picture of revolution", but he had mistakenly made it "anti-revolution". In his analysis of the song, MacDonald doubted that Lennon conceptualised the piece as representing a revolution in the usual sense, but rather as "a sensory attack on the citadel of the intellect: a revolution in the head" aimed at each listener. MacDonald also noted that the structure suggests a "half-awake, channel-hopping" mental state, with underlying themes of consciousness and quality of awareness. Others have described the piece as Lennon's attempt at turning "nightmare imagery" into sound, and as "an autobiographical soundscape."


Duración: 08:13
Año: 1970
Formato: L.P.
A la venta: 22/11/1968
Disquera: Apple


John Lennon: voz, piano, mellotron, electrónica y de fabricación casera efectos de sonido, cintas y lazos de cinta
George Harrison: voz, cintas y lazos de cinta
Ringo Starr: voz
Yoko Ono: voz



La revista Rolling Stone clasifica a The Beatles (White Album) como el número 10 entre los 500 discos más importantes de todos los tiempos


1. "Back In The USSR"
2. "Dear Prudence"
3. "Glass Onion"
4. "Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da"
5. "Wild Honey Pie"
6. "The Continuing Story Of Bungalow Bill"
7. "While My Guitar Gently Weeps"
8. "Happiness Is A Warm Gun"

1. "Martha My Dear"
2. "I'm So Tired"
3. "Blackbirds"
4. "Piggies"
5. "Rocky Racoon"
6. "Don't Pass Me By"
7. "Whay Don´t We Do It On The Road"
8. "I Will"
9. "Julia"

1. "Birthday"
2. "Yer Blues"
3. "Mothe Nature's Son"
4. "Everybody's Got Something To Hide Except Me Ans My Monkey"
5. "Sexy Sadie"
6. "Helter Skelter"
7. "Long, Long, Long"

1. "Revolution 1"
2. "Honey Pie"
3. "Savoy Truffle"
4. "Cry, Baby Cry"
5. "Revolution 9"
6. "Good Night"

The Beatles is the ninth official album by the English rock group The Beatles, a double album released in 1968. It is commonly known as the "White Album" as it has no graphics or text other than the band's name embossed in grey letters (and, on the early LP and CD releases, a serial number) on its plain white sleeve. The album was the first that The Beatles undertook following the death of their manager, Brian Epstein, and the first released by their own record label, Apple. The album's original title, A Doll's House, was changed when the English progressive rock band Family released the similarly titled Music in a Doll's House earlier that year. It has sold over 30 million copies world-wide.

The Beatles was written and recorded during a period of turmoil for the group, after visiting the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in India and having a particularly productive songwriting session in early 1968. The group returned to the studio for recording from May to October 1968, only to have conflict and dissent drive the group members apart. Drummer Ringo Starr quit the band for a brief time, leaving Paul McCartney to perform drums on some of the album's songs. Many of the songs were "solo" recordings, or at least by less than the full group, as each individual member began to explore his own talent.

Upon release in November 1968, the album received mixed to positive reviews and reached the number one spot on the charts in the United Kingdom and United States. The album is notable for the eclectic nature of its songs, which has divided critics in evaluating the album's legacy. In 2003, the album was ranked number 10 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time".


The Beatles: Liverpool

The Beatles fue una banda inglesa de rock que se formó en Liverpool en 1960. Es frecuentemente reconocida como la más comercialmente exitosa y críticamente aclamada en la historia de la música popular. Desde 1962 estuvo integrada por John Lennon (guitarra rítmica, vocalista), Paul McCartney (bajo, vocalista), George Harrison (guitarra solista, vocalista) y Ringo Starr (batería, vocalista). Aunque en sus inicios tocaban skiffle y rock and roll de los años cincuenta, a lo largo de su carrera trabajaron con distintos géneros musicales, interpretando desde el folk rock hasta el rock psicodélico. La naturaleza de su enorme popularidad, que había emergido primeramente con la moda de la «Beatlemanía», se transformó al tiempo que sus composiciones se volvieron más sofisticadas. Llegaron a ser percibidos como la encarnación de los ideales progresistas, extendiendo su influencia en las revoluciones sociales y culturales de la década de 1960.

Con una formación inicial de cinco elementos que incluía a Lennon, McCartney, Harrison, Stuart Sutcliffe (bajo) y Pete Best (batería), construyeron su reputación en los clubes de Liverpool y Hamburgo en un período de tres años a partir de 1960. Sutcliffe abandonó la formación en 1961, y Best fue reemplazado por Starr al año siguiente. Establecidos como grupo profesional después de que Brian Epstein les ofreciera ser su representante, y con su potencial musical mejorado por la creatividad del productor George Martin, lograron éxito comercial en el Reino Unido a finales de 1962 con su primer sencillo, «Love Me Do». A partir de ahí, fueron adquiriendo popularidad internacional a lo largo de los siguientes años, en los cuales hicieron un extenso número de giras hasta 1966, año en que cesaron la actividad en vivo para dedicarse únicamente a la grabación en el estudio hasta su disolución en 1970. Después, todos sus integrantes se embarcaron en exitosas carreras independientes. Lennon sería asesinado a las afueras de su casa de Nueva York en 1980, y Harrison fallecería de cáncer en 2001. McCartney y Starr aún permanecen activos.

Durante sus años de estudio crearon algunos de sus mejores materiales, incluyendo el Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967), considerado por muchos como una obra maestra. Cuatro décadas después de su separación, la música que crearon continúa siendo popular. Se mantienen como el grupo con más números uno en las listas británicas, situando más álbumes en esta posición que cualquier otra agrupación musical. De acuerdo con las certificaciones de la RIAA, han vendido más discos en los Estados Unidos que cualquier otro artista. En 2008, la revista Billboard publicó una lista de los artistas más exitosos de todos los tiempos en el Hot 100 con motivo del 50 aniversario de la lista de éxitos, y The Beatles fueron colocados en el número uno. Fueron galardonados con siete premios Grammy, y recibieron quince premios Ivor Novello de la Academia Británica de Compositores y Autores. En 2004, la revista Rolling Stone los clasificó en el número uno en su lista de los «50 artistas más grandes de todos los tiempos». De acuerdo con la misma publicación, la música innovadora de The Beatles y su impacto cultural ayudaron a definir los años sesenta. También fueron colocados en el puesto No. 1 por el sitio de Internet Acclaimed Music en su lista «The Top 1000 Artists of All Time» y por Digital Dream Door en su lista «100 Greatest Rock Artists».


Phish; Def FX; Little Fyodor; Alarm Will Sound

No hay comentarios:

Publicar un comentario

Nota: solo los miembros de este blog pueden publicar comentarios.